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The great majority of the teachers lacked the necessary qualifications to impart in- struction in either grammar, geographv, history or mathematics.
Many of them were not even qualified to teach "the three R's."' About 1850 school-directors took more interest in schools, and in the fol- lowing four years few teachers were em- ployed without examination.
My first provisional' certificate was granted by David Wills ; it is Xo. During my pedagogical career in Adams county, the county-superintendents were Messrs. Ellis, Sheely and Thoman, trie last- named being one of my former pupils. The timidity that had character- ized the iirst institutes had partly disap- peared. before the War of the Rebellion, many noble, able and self-sacrificing teachers, both male and female.
Thoughts uttered were well ex- pressed, were practical, and so given that they could not fail to be of great benefit to the less experienced teachers. THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN School Conditions Fifty Years Ago.
Hence I still contend that generally peo- ple will only interest themselves in any- thing when they are compelled to furnish the pecuniary means.
In schools then any violation of rules was punished either by rod or ruler.
The object of these normal schools was to prepare students, male and female, for teaching, of whom at least 125 took up the profession. In my first few years of teaching there was some opposition to me, nominally on account of my youth, but really because of my determined efforts in urging the necessity of better schools, better teachers and a change of textbooks.■'■ ;-c mail A POPULAR MAGAZINE OF ;ne 20, 1907— By RUSSEL C. The first teachers' institute was held at Gettysburg in 1854; it was attended by thirty-rive teachers, including myself. The subjects for discis- sion were promptly taken up and ably handled. M ** ' ; Pure German " and " Pennsylv ania-Dutch "—By Rev. Hickok came to the helm as State-superintendent of schools.The ruler was applied on the palm of the hands, and occasionally on the finger- tips, and I could never understand why such brutality was tolerated.I never used the ruler and had little occasion to resort to the rod.
In my earlier pedagogical career text- books were such as would not command the favorable consideration of school- boards at present.